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Infection with hepatitis B-Tenofovir disoproxil

 Infection with hepatitis B

Indications for the use of tenofovir disoproxil 245 mg film-coated tablets for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in adolescents aged 12 to 18 include:

Compensated liver disease and indications of an immunological disease, such as consistently increased blood ALT levels and active viral replication, or histology indications of moderate to severe inflammation and/or fibrosis. Regarding the choice to begin therapy with pediatric patients...



Adults with the following conditions may benefit from tenofovir disoproxil 245 mg film-coated tablets for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B:

-Compensated liver disease with histological evidence of ongoing inflammation and/or fibrosis, evidence of active viral replication, and consistently increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels

-indications of the hepatitis B virus being lamivudine-resistant

-liver disease with decompensation.


Tags:hepatitis B,tenofovir disoproxil,hepatitis virus,ALT,liver,

Treatment of liver(hepatitis)

Granulomatous hepatitis is a condition in which abnormal collections of white blood cells collect in the liver.
Fortunately, most people recover completely from hepatitis A, E and nonviral hepatitis. Mild flare-ups may occur over a period of several months with viral hepatitis. 
Each flare-up is usually less severe than the initial attack, and a relapse does not necessarily indicate that complete recovery will not take place.

Unfortunately, hepatitis B, C and D can linger in the body, producing chronic, perhaps lifelong, infection. Additionally, carriers of the hepatitis virus can infect others, even though they feel perfectly well. 

They may face risks of liver disease (cirrhosis and liver cancer) in the future.

Symptoms of Hepatitis

Hepatitis produces an initial acute phase, often with few if any symptoms. If there are symptoms, they tend to mimic "flu-like" symptoms such as:
  • mild fever
  • muscle or joint aches
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • loss of appetite
  • slight abdominal pain
  • diarrhea
  • fatigue
The acute phase and its symptoms is rarely serious or fatal, although occasionally a so-called fulminant or rapidly progressing form leads to death.
As the condition worsens, the person also may experience these additional symptoms:
  • jaundice (yellowed skin, mucous membranes and eye-whites)
  • dark urine
  • light colored stools that may contain pus
  • itching
  • enlarged spleen (symptom of alcoholic hepatitis only)
  • hives
  • headache (symptom of toxic/drug-induced hepatitis only)
  • dizziness (symptom of toxic/drug-induced hepatitis only)
  • drowsiness (symptom of toxic/drug-induced hepatitis only)
  • circulation problems (symptom of toxic/drug-induced hepatitis only)
The course of the hepatitis and the different outcomes after the acute phase that distinguish the various types.

Diagnosis of Hepatitis

The doctor will take a thorough medical history with emphasis on the patient�s medications, alcohol consumption, previous surgeries and sexual activity. He or she may palpate the area over the liver to check for tenderness or enlargement.
If the skin becomes jaundiced and the person is exhibiting other symptoms of hepatitis, the doctor will do various lab tests, such as blood tests and liver panel tests. Additional lab tests include the antibody tests (ELISA II, RIBA II) and thehepatitis C RNA test via PCR technology for diagnosis of hepatitis C only.
If needed, the doctor may also perform a liver biopsy where a small portion of the liver would be taken for further examination under a microscope.

Treatment of Hepatitis

There is no specific treatment for hepatitis A. The doctor will recommend the abstinence of alcohol and drugs during recovery. Most cases of hepatitis A resolve themselves spontaneously.
The only treatment for hepatitis B is rest, combined with a high protein/high carbohydrate diet to repair damaged liver cells and protect the liver. If hepatitis B persists, the doctor may recommend an antiviral agent called interferon.
The only approved treatment for hepatitis C virus, and the only one with demonstrated efficacy, is interferon alfa-2b (Intron A).
Currently, there is not effective treatment for hepatitis D and E.
For treatment of nonviral hepatitis, the doctor will first remove the harmful substance by flushing out the stomach via inducing vomiting or hyperventilation. If necessary, the patient with drug-induced hepatitis will be treated with corticosteroids.

tag:Treatment of liver(hepatitis),For treatment of nonviral hepatitis,,.the patient with drug-induced hepatitis ,Diagnosis of Hepatitis,

New drugs against hepatitis C

 Currently, people usually get hepatitis C by sharing needles for injection drug use. An HCV-infected woman can pass the infection to her baby during birth. It is also possible to get hepatitis C from an infected person through sexual contact, an accidental needlestick with a contaminated needle, or improperly sterilized medical, acupuncture, piercing, or tattooing equipment.

Hepatitis C can be treated and cured. Almost everyone living with HCV can now be cured with a one-pill-a-day regimen in eight-to-twelve weeks. These new medications are generally well-tolerated. In order to access HCV treatment, it is necessary to see your doctor to discuss treatment options. Access to treatment continues to improve as new medication regimens are made available by private health insurers and public health programs.

Tags:hepatitis C,injection drug,HCV,

The virus Hepatitis C

 Hepatitis C becomes chronic when the body is unable to eliminate the virus. Chronic hepatitis C, in most cases, has no symptoms or causes general symptoms such as chronic fatigue or depression. 

A person's condition may only be discovered during a routine blood test or screening for blood donation.



Early detection and treatment can help to prevent liver damage. 

Chronic hepatitis C, if left untreated, can result in:

Chronic liver disease, which can develop gradually over several decades with no symptoms

failure of the liver

Cirrhosis, or scarring of the liver

cancer of the liver...


Tags:liver,cancer,chrnonic,

Hepatitis C

 Hepatitis C is a viral infection that causes inflammation and damage to the liver. Inflammation is the swelling that occurs when body tissues are injured or infected. Organs can be damaged by inflammation.

Although there is no vaccine for hepatitis C, you can take precautions to protect yourself. If you have hepatitis C, consult your doctor about treatment options. Most cases of hepatitis C can be cured with medications.Hepatitis C infection can be acute or chronic.

Viruses NIH external link infiltrate healthy cells in your body. Many viruses cause infections that can be passed from one person to the next. Contact with the blood of an infected person spreads the hepatitis C virus.

Although there is no vaccine for hepatitis C, you can take precautions to protect yourself. If you have hepatitis C, consult your doctor about treatment options. Most cases of hepatitis C can be cured with medications.


Tags:hepatitis C,viruses,infection,

Medications and the Liver


Since all medications are processed through the liver at least to some degree, people with liver disease must become aware of which medications can cause liver damage, which medications can worsen preexisting liver disease, and which medications are safe to take. It is the liver’s job to detoxify any substances that are potentially harmful to the body. 

An already damaged and weakened liver must work much harder than a healthy liver in order to accomplish this task. When a person with liver disease ingests a potentially hepatotoxic drug, this puts an additional strain on the liver and can result in further liver injury or possibly even liver failure. Even people with a healthy liver can develop liver disease as a consequence of ingesting a toxic medication or drug.
In general, people with liver disease should avoid medications known to be hepatotoxic. People who must be treated with a medication that is potentially hepatotoxic should have their LFTs closely monitored by their doctors. If a person’s LFTs become greater than three times baseline values, the medication causing these elevations should be discontinued. Also, it is essential that people with liver disease inform their liver specialists of every medication or drug that they are taking—including herbs, over-the-counter drugs and/or recreational drugs. There is no reason for the patient to expect the doctor to be judgmental. Her goal is the same as the patient’s. Therefore, complete information should be provided to the doctor concerning prescription medications, over-the-counter medications, and herbal and alternative therapies. Remember, a doctor’s objective is to help her patient get better and to help protect her patient from unintentional additional liver damage.

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