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What is liver transplantation?

What is liver transplantation?

Liver transplantation is surgery to remove a diseased or injured liver and replace it with a healthy one from another person, called a donor. Many people have had liver transplants and now lead normal lives.You cannot live without a liver that works. If your liver stops working as it should, you may need a liver transplant.
Your liver helps fight infections and cleans your blood. It also helps digest food and stores a form of sugar your body uses for energy. The liver is the largest organ in your body.
Some signs and symptoms of liver problems are
-yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes, a condition called jaundice
-feeling tired or weak
-losing your appetite
-feeling sick to your stomach
-losing weight
-losing muscle
-bruising or bleeding easily
-bleeding in the stomach
-throwing up blood
-passing black stools
-having a swollen abdomen
-becoming forgetful or confused
Each transplant center has rules about who can have a liver transplant. You may not be able to have a transplant if you have
  • cancer outside the liver

  • serious heart or lung disease

  • an alcohol or drug abuse problem

  • a severe infection

  • AIDS

  • trouble following your doctor’s instructions

  • no support system

Most livers come from people who have just died. This type of donor is called a deceased donor. Sometimes a healthy living person will donate part of his or her liver to a patient, usually a family member. This type of donor is called a living donor. Both types of transplants usually have good results.
All donated livers and living donors are tested before transplant surgery. The testing makes sure the donor liver works as it should, matches your blood type, and is the right size, so it has the best chance of working in your body. Adults usually receive the entire liver from a deceased donor. Sometimes only a portion of a whole liver from a deceased donor is used to fit a smaller person. In some cases, a liver from a deceased donor is split into two parts. The smaller part may go to a child, and the larger part may go to an adult....

All donated livers and living donors,transplants usually have good results.,Some signs and symptoms of liver problems are,

What is liver transplantation?

Treatment of liver(hepatitis)

Granulomatous hepatitis is a condition in which abnormal collections of white blood cells collect in the liver.
Fortunately, most people recover completely from hepatitis A, E and nonviral hepatitis. Mild flare-ups may occur over a period of several months with viral hepatitis. Each flare-up is usually less severe than the initial attack, and a relapse does not necessarily indicate that complete recovery will not take place.

Unfortunately, hepatitis B, C and D can linger in the body, producing chronic, perhaps lifelong, infection. Additionally, carriers of the hepatitis virus can infect others, even though they feel perfectly well. 

They may face risks of liver disease (cirrhosis and liver cancer) in the future.

Symptoms of Hepatitis

Hepatitis produces an initial acute phase, often with few if any symptoms. If there are symptoms, they tend to mimic "flu-like" symptoms such as:
  • mild fever
  • muscle or joint aches
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • loss of appetite
  • slight abdominal pain
  • diarrhea
  • fatigue
The acute phase and its symptoms is rarely serious or fatal, although occasionally a so-called fulminant or rapidly progressing form leads to death.
As the condition worsens, the person also may experience these additional symptoms:
  • jaundice (yellowed skin, mucous membranes and eye-whites)
  • dark urine
  • light colored stools that may contain pus
  • itching
  • enlarged spleen (symptom of alcoholic hepatitis only)
  • hives
  • headache (symptom of toxic/drug-induced hepatitis only)
  • dizziness (symptom of toxic/drug-induced hepatitis only)
  • drowsiness (symptom of toxic/drug-induced hepatitis only)
  • circulation problems (symptom of toxic/drug-induced hepatitis only)
The course of the hepatitis and the different outcomes after the acute phase that distinguish the various types.

Diagnosis of Hepatitis

The doctor will take a thorough medical history with emphasis on the patient�s medications, alcohol consumption, previous surgeries and sexual activity. He or she may palpate the area over the liver to check for tenderness or enlargement.
If the skin becomes jaundiced and the person is exhibiting other symptoms of hepatitis, the doctor will do various lab tests, such as blood tests and liver panel tests. Additional lab tests include the antibody tests (ELISA II, RIBA II) and thehepatitis C RNA test via PCR technology for diagnosis of hepatitis C only.
If needed, the doctor may also perform a liver biopsy where a small portion of the liver would be taken for further examination under a microscope.

Treatment of Hepatitis

There is no specific treatment for hepatitis A. The doctor will recommend the abstinence of alcohol and drugs during recovery. Most cases of hepatitis A resolve themselves spontaneously.
The only treatment for hepatitis B is rest, combined with a high protein/high carbohydrate diet to repair damaged liver cells and protect the liver. If hepatitis B persists, the doctor may recommend an antiviral agent called interferon.
The only approved treatment for hepatitis C virus, and the only one with demonstrated efficacy, is interferon alfa-2b (Intron A).
Currently, there is not effective treatment for hepatitis D and E.
For treatment of nonviral hepatitis, the doctor will first remove the harmful substance by flushing out the stomach via inducing vomiting or hyperventilation. If necessary, the patient with drug-induced hepatitis will be treated with corticosteroids.

tag:Treatment of liver(hepatitis),For treatment of nonviral hepatitis,,.the patient with drug-induced hepatitis ,Diagnosis of Hepatitis,

Hepatitis C - Symptoms-Patient Comments:

Hepatitis C - Symptoms-Patient Comments:

- The only thing that seems consistent is that I'm always exhausted. There is no such thing as enough sleep for me. I require cup after cup of coffee in the daytime and several hours of sleep at night, and I still feel tired. Other than that, all my symptoms seem so random. I have occasional aches and pains. My stomach hurts a lot, and I just plain don't feel good a lot of them time. I don't know how long I have had hepatitis C.
- My family and friends mean the world to me and they all are very supportive. I just don't know if I have the strength or faith to fight this one. I'm tired all the time, sick all the time and just feel achy in my muscles. Is there a support group out there that I can contact? Others that are going through the same things as me?I'm really scared!!! Just found out 3 days ago that I have Hep C. I don't know what to do or who to turn to. I'm supposed to contact my dr. to start treatment but at this point I just feel like I want to curl
-  I thought I was going to die, four two months the emergency room still could not find out what was wrong with me. Test after test was given to me but no one knew what was wrong with me. I have no tatoos, do not use drugs no history of sexual activity other than my husband. Finally an ER doctor asked me if he could check one more option so I agreed he said the test was for Hep C since he noticed I had to be given blood 4 years prior. That's when I was told I had Hep C. I visited with a hep doctor and he told me that the level readings were so high he didn't even want a liver biopsy because my liver was so bad. The doctor put me on the pegasist\interfuron program. I stayed in constant pain, I was so tired I had to clean my house slowly and in shifts it took me almost all day to get my housework done. My pain would not stop and was constant my abdomen, liver area back and the constant fight for my breath I really thought I was going to die ...
- that lead to a blood test which lead to hep test and bam I had Hep-C. I don't know how I contracted it and that is a private matter but now I have to figure out how to live with it. I have an option for the meds which is called infer ion something like that but I didn't do that as of yet. I take all sorts of medicine like methadone, Ritalin, lortab and prilosic. Now I have to take this for that and that for this so I am skeptical on what to take because I have good days and bad ones......

The liver

The liver is the only internal human organ capable of natural regeneration of lost tissue ; as little as 25% of a liver can regenerate into a whole liver.Currently, there is no artificial organ or device capable of emulating all the functions of the liver.An irregularly shaped, dome-like solid structure, the liver consists of two main parts (a larger right lobe and a smaller left lobe) and two minor lobes.The liver is located just below the diaphragm primarily in the upper right part of the abdomen, mostly under the ribs,it also extends across the middle of the upper abdomen and part way into the left upper abdomen.This organ plays a major role in metabolism and has a number of functions in the body, including glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells, plasma protein synthesis, hormone production, and detoxification.A human liver normally weighs 1.44–1.66 kg (3.2–3.7 lb), [ 3 ] and is a soft, pinkish-brown, triangular organ.....

tag:liver,human liver,functions,natural,

Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer

Chronic hepatitis B infections cause 80% of all primary liver cancer worldwide.

Patients with chronic hepatitis B infections are at increased risk for progressing to liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), whether they develop cirrhosis or not.
In the U.S. the overall incidence of cancer is decreasing, except for primary liver cancer (as reported by the National Cancer Institute in 2005). 
This is due in large part to the increased number of Americans who are chronically infected with hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Although survival rates for most types of common cancers have improved over the years, the 5-year survival rate for liver cancer is still below 10%.
In the world, primary liver cancer is the 3rd leading cause of death. According to the World Health Organization, at least 550,000 people die each year from primary liver cancer.
The hepatitis B vaccine was named the first "Anti-Cancer Vaccine" vaccine by the U.S. Food and Dug Administration since it prevents hepatitis B infections, the leading cause of primary liver cancer.

Early diagnosis of small tumors is the only effective way of improving the outcome of liver cancer treatment, and that is only possible through screening of the high-risk population. Universal hepatitis B vaccination is ultimately the only hope for reducing the incidence of this frequently fatal cancer worldwide.

tags:Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer,The hepatitis B vaccine,chronic hepatitis B inections,

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