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Nutrition of patients in chronic liver disease / hepatitis B and C /


In chronic liver disease, while normal function was still held, a special diet is not necessary, but alcohol should be avoided and healthy balanced diet should be held. In occurrence of liver damage normal light diet is required and alcohol avoided. The recommended diet of patients with chronic liver disease is lean chicken, beef, veal, lamb meat and fish, and the consumption of smoked meat, pork, sausage, fattened geese and ducks, and fatty fish should be avoided. Food should be cooked, or baked, with avoiding of burning. As a side dish all types of pasta and rice, and white, black or corn bread could be served. Fried noodle is not recommended as it is full of yeast .
Since vegetables are recommended: potatoes, spinach, lettuce, carrot, beet, chard, kohlrabi, cauliflower, asparagus - boiled, braised or served as a salad. It is recommended to avoid beans, cabbage, sour and fresh cabbage, onions, cucumbers, garlic and pepper.
When it comes to fat, vegetable oil, margarine, nonfat cream is more preferable, and definitely butter and other fats should be avoided.
When preparing food allowed spices are: parsley, lemon, dill, basil, white vinegar, a strictly prohibited pepper, mustard, cayenne pepper and other strong spices.
From dairy products cottage cheese and low fat yogurt should be selected, and oily and dry cheeses avoided.
Fruit is the healthiest to be taken fresh, but it can be boiled or mashed too.What should certainly be avoided are fatty cakes, rich with walnuts, almonds and chocolate, and the priority is given to biscuits.
From drinks is the best to take a mild tea / peppermint and chamomile / other teas are not allowed. You should avoid fizzy and alcohol drinks.
The advantage of light normal diet is that it does not cause unpleasant symptoms such as pain, nausea, bloating, diarrhea that may occur after meals.

Liver and Hepatitis A,B,C ,D,E.....?



Hepatitis:

Hepatitis D is caused by the virus "HDV"You can only get hepatitis D if you are already infected with hepatitis B.


You get hepatitis E by drinking water infected with the virus.This type of hepatitis doesn't occur often in the United States.


Hepatitis A is caused by eating food and drinking water infected with a virus called "HAV".


Hepatitis B is spread through contact with an infected person's blood, semen or other body fluid.

Hepatitis C is spread the same way as hepatitis B, through contact with an infected person's blood, semen or other body fluid.

Most people who get hepatitis A are never even aware of it because they never show any symptoms.

tags:hepatitis ABCDEFG,

Hepatitis -liver inflammation

What is hepatitis?Hepatitis is the Latin word for liver inflammation. It is characterised by the destruction of a number of liver cells and the presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue.
Hepatitis can be caused by diseases that primarily attack the liver cells. It can also arise as a result of a disease such as mononucleosis. Hepatitis can be divided into two subgroups according to its duration:
  • acute hepatitis - lasting less than six months
  • chronic hepatitis - lasting longer than six months.

What can cause acute hepatitis?

Acute hepatitis has a number of possible causes.

What can cause chronic hepatitis?

Chronic hepatitis also has a number of different causes.
  • Contagious viral hepatitis such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C and hepatitis D.
  • Medicines.
  • Toxins such as alcohol.
  • Autoimmune hepatitis. This is a disease in which a number of liver cells are destroyed by the patient's own immune system. Autoimmune hepatitis can also sometimes occur as acute hepatitis. The cause is unknown.
  • Inborn metabolic disorders, such as Wilson's disease (disorder of the body's copper metabolism) and haemochromatosis (disorder of the body's iron metabolism).

How do you get hepatitis?

A person can develop hepatitis if they contract one of the viruses that can cause liver inflammation, or as a result of exposure to substances that can cause hepatitis - alcohol, fungal toxins and certain medicines.
There are two ways in which medicines can lead to hepatitis: it can either occur as a result of medicine poisoning through overdoses of a medicine (eg paracetamol), or it can occur as a result of an abnormal reaction of the liver to a normal dose (eg halothane, the anaesthetic). Fortunately, the latter type of hepatitis is rare.
tags:How do you get hepatitis?What can cause chronic hepatitis,the liver,

The liver



The liver:An organ in the upper abdomen that aids in digestion and removes waste products and worn-out cells from the blood.

The liver is the largest solid organ in the body.

The liver weighs about three and a half pounds (1.6 kilograms).

It measures about 8 inches (20 cm) horizontally (across) and 6.5 inches (17 cm) vertically (down) and is 4.5 inches (12 cm) thick. . .

tags:the liver,hepatitis abc,virus the liver,abdomen that aids in digestion,

Hepatitis Risk


Intravenous drug use has been the greatest risk factor for hepatitis C since the early 1980s. Although transfused blood has been tested for both hepatitis B and C since the early nineties, individuals given transfusions before then, even decades before, may still be at risk. Such individuals are urged to be tested. Most health care providers are at low risk, although the chance of infection in hospital workers who are accidentally stuck with a needle is high, ranging from 4% to 10%.
Although heavy drinking itself is the major risk factor for alcoholic hepatitis, genetic factors may play a role in increasing a person's risk for alcoholic hepatitis. Women who abuse alcohol are at higher risk for alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis than are men who drink heavily. High fat diets may also increase the risk in heavy drinkers.
People who are at risk for developing hepatitis are workers in the health care professions, people with multiple sexual partners, intravenous drug users, and hemophiliacs. Hepatitis is generally thought to be as much as ten times more common in the lower socioeconomic and poorly educated groups. About one third of all cases of hepatitis come from an unknown or unidentifiable source. 
This means that you don't have to be in a high risk group in order to be infected with the hepatitis virus.
Feces-contaminated water and food are the major sources of infection of Hepatitis A , and infected people can transmit it to others if they do not take strict sanitary precautions. Hepatitis A is the hepatitis strain people are most likely to encounter in the course of international travel.
Up to 90% of Hepatitis B patients are men, although it can infect children.
Drug users who share needles are at considerable risk. Pregnant women with hepatitis B can transmit the virus to their babies. Contaminated medical instruments, including fingerstick devices used for more than one individual, have been known to transmit the virus.

tags:Hepatitis Risk,Hepatitis A ,Intravenous drug,

HEPATITIS B VIRUS

Human hepatitis B virus (figure 3) is the prototype virus of the hepadnavirus family and causes serum hepatitis. HBV has a diameter of about 40nm.
It infects humans and chimpanzees but there are closely related members of this family that infect other mammals and birds. HBV is a DNA virus and is enveloped.
The DNA is only partly double stranded and forms a circle of around 3,200 bases. Although surrounded by a host cell-derived envelope, HBV is remarkably stable to organic solvents. It is also heat- and pH-resistant. The genome is associated with the P (polymerase) protein and this complex is, in turn, surrounded by the core antigens (HBcAg and HBeAg).

 These two proteins have most of their sequence in common and most of the HBeAg is secreted since it is processed differently from the HBcAg and thus not assembled into progeny virus. Embedded in the surface lipid bilayer is the surface antigen (HBsAg).
The HBsAg (Australia antigen) is made up of three glycoproteins that are encoded by the same gene. The proteins are translated in the same reading frame but start at a different AUG start codon; thus, all have the same C-terminus. The largest protein is the L protein (42kd) and contained within this is the M glycoprotein. The S glycoprotein (27kD) is contained within the M protein. 

The HBsAg protein is also secreted into the patient’s serum where it can be seen as spherical (mostly self-associated S protein) or filamentous particles (also mostly S protein but with some L and M). 

The former are smaller than the true virus but the filaments can be quite large (several hundred nanometers).
This large amount of free HBsAg accounts for the inability to detect antibodies against the protein early during infection (the so-called "window" between the presence HBsAg (indicative of the presence of virus) and the presence of anti-HBsAg).



The glycoproteins on the virus surface contain antigenic determinants that are group specific and type specific. Using these determinants, epidemiologists identify eight subtypes of HBV.
HBV virions are also known as Dane particles.

tags:Human,hepatitis B virus,The glycoproteins
 HBsAg, (HBcAg and HBeAg),

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