Amebic liver abscess is caused by Entamoeba histolytica, the same organism that causes amebiasis, an intestinal infection also called amebic dysentery. The organism is carried by the blood from the intestines to the liver.
The disease spreads through ingestion of amebic cysts in food or water contaminated with feces (sometimes due to use of human waste as fertilizer), and through person-to-person contact.
The infection occurs worldwide, but is most common in tropical areas where crowded living conditions and poor sanitation exist. Africa, Latin America, Southeast Asia, and India have significant health problems associated with this disease.
Risk factors for amebic liver abscess include:
-Homosexual activity, particularly in men
-Recent travel to a tropical region
-Steroid use. An antibiotic medicine called metronidazole (Flagyl) is the usual treatment for liver abscess. A medication such as iodoquinol must also be taken to get rid of all the amebas in the intestine, to prevent the disease from coming back. This can usually be delayed until after the abscess has been treated.In rare cases, the abscess may need to be drained to help relieve some of the abdominal pain.Without treatment, the abscess may rupture and spread into other organs, leading to death. Persons who receive treatment have a very high chance of a complete cure or having only minor complications.
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